Black & White Edition in U.S.A

Arctic Heats Up.
Spitsbergen 1919 to 1939

Colored Edition in Europe

How Spitsbergen Heats the World
The Arctic Warming 1919-1939

Ca.116 pages and 100 b/w figures. More details HOME at right column. Ca. 116 pages and 100 color figures. Details HOME at right column.


The largest sea ice expansion in the North Atlantic since 1900 in May 1917!
Due to naval war
fare in Europe ?
Figure source:; based on data from Chapman, W. L. and J. E. Walsh.

1901 to 1920
Corresponding Discussion HERE

enlarge image: CLICK


Corresponding Discussion

Record North Atlantic sea ice in summer 1917! 
Contributing to the biggest climatic shift last century? 
What caused this extraordinary event?


In addition to Chapter 8