All material shown or referred to is based on the same text, but may have been individually changed, whereby the PDF-Text below is the most updated version. 

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The Book in PDF

Black & White Edition in U.S.A
Arctic Heats Up.
Spitsbergen 1919 to 1939

Colored Edition in Europe
How Spitsbergen Heats the World
The Arctic Warming 1919-1939
ISBN: 978-1-4401-4087-7 ISBN 978-3-8370-9524-1
Ca.116 pages and 100 b/w figures. More details in right column. Ca. 116 pages and 100 color figures. Details see column.


Quick Access to the various sites:
  This link provides quick access to the sites related to climatic issue and the Law of the Sea.

General site - HOME PAGE:
  The web-site serves as home page with two main functions. On one hand it provides access to work published in the 1990s and recently, but on the other hand discusses topics of topical themes, named Letters, presented at the front page. Pervious letters are store in the Archive.

Specialized sites. CLIMATE

  • Effect of Naval Warfare:
  This site provides an comprehensive overview of the material assessed and analyzed of the possible impact of naval war on the weather pattern and climatic changes during the 20th Century. It covers the sudden arctic warming that commenced in winter 1918/19 with an impact over a wider region, particularly in Europe during the 1920s and 1930, followed by three extreme winters all over Northern Europe from autumn 1939 to spring 1942, which also marked the start of a three decade long global cooling period. The main focus is clearly the analysis of the naval force impact on the winter weather conditions during the first three war years of WWII. As it seems possible to prove this influence beyond doubt, this time period covers about three-fourth of the total work that are presented in about 30 sections.
    NOTE: As the hmtl-version from 2004 represents the first workout, it is recommended to make use from the available PDF-files, which are actually a copy of a subsequent book with figures and graphs and a substantial better English as the original web-site text.
The presented material is actually the copies of published books with a tauten text of the book mentioned together with the previous site. They present not only the analysis more briefly but have numerous graphics, one book only in b/w, the other contains also a number of colored graphics.
Primarily a part of the overall assessment of the climate during the last century (, over the time passing, the early arctic warming became too interesting and demanding for being presented only as an appendix of the main analysis: the winter 1939-1942. Together with the preparation of a oral presentation at a PACON Conference in Honolulu/Hawaii in June 2007 the website emerged as a subject on its own with a detailed review of the When, Where, and Why of the warming event, concluding that it has been caused by the West-Spitsbergen Current, and that the naval war activities in the seas around Great Britain during the years 1914-1918 should not be ignored when searching for the ultimate event that may have cause the Spitsbergen Current supply the arctic with higher temperatures.
    Note: The PACON-Conference paper is on the site available in English, French, Russian, Polish, and German.

  • The meaning of "CLIMATE"
One of the most insufficiencies of the climate change debate is the lack of a reasonable and useful definition of CLIMATE. It makes little sense to regard 'climate as the average weather', as it demonstrates that the mechanism of climate is little understood. This does not only prevents a fruitful discussion, but is quickly generating an irrational debate. As a matter of fact, all the work on climate change and the naval war effect (see previous reference), has been undertaken to fight this ignorance. This conviction derives from a long maritime experience by living and professional circumstances, as well as maritime lawyer (see: The ocean and seas are the supplier and deciders of the global climate and if mankind wants to avoid anthropogenic climatic changes, it needs to understand how the ocean and the relation ocean/climate works, and the master plan for understanding and appropriate action id the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea. However the first step on this road is to define what CLIMATE is, to which intents to contribute.

Specialized sites: LAW OF THE SEA (UNCLOS)

The Book "Bernaerts" Guide to the 1982 UN Convention on the Law of the Sea"; which had been published by Fairplay/UK in 1988, received a reprint in 2006, after the original text was simultaneously made electronically available online:
The book from 1988 is presented on this site, except the related legal documents available with the hard copy.

Miscellaneous & Sites in German:

The following sites also belong to the presented complex, but will here only be mentioned without further explanation:

       Note: Papers and articles in German since the 1980s can be found here.


Book details

U.S.A. Edition in B/W

Europe Edition in Color

Access to previous Material

Access to related sites

Recent papers since 2007

20th PACON Conf. 2007
FROM 1918 to 1940 BE EXPLAINED?"

CD-ROM. Pages: 325-337.

Conf. Paper with Figures
In English
In French
In Russian
In Polish
In German

General Material

Annex B I - Colored Sea Ice 1910-1919
Annex F - Air Temp.(Jan - Feb) 1912-1930; North Atlantic Region.
Annex G - Annual Mean Temperatures from app. 1880-1947 in the Northern Atlantic Region.